Human echinococcosis (hydatidosis, or hydatid disease) is caused by the larval stages of cestodes (tapeworms) of the genus Echinococcus. Echinococcus granulosus (sensu lato) causes cystic echinococcosis and is the form most frequently encountered. Many genotypes of E. granulosus have been identified that differ in their distribution, host range, and some morphological features; these are often grouped into separate species in modern literature. The known zoonotic genotypes within the E. granulosus sensu lato complex include the “classical” E. granulosus sensu stricto (G1–G3 genotypes), E. ortleppi (G5), and the E. canadensis group (usually considered G6, G7, G8, and G10). Research on the epidemiology and diversity of these genotypes is ongoing, and no consensus has been reached on appropriate nomenclature thus far.
E. multilocularis occurs in the northern hemisphere, including central and northern Europe, Central Asia, northern Russia, northern Japan, north-central United States, northwestern Alaska, and northwestern Canada. In North America, Echinococcus multilocularis is found primarily in the north-central region as well as Alaska and Canada. Rare human cases have been reported in Alaska, the province of Manitoba, and Minnesota.
- EG01 : Echinococcus granulosus, dried antigens extracted from cysts